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applications of different types of single phase induction motors

One of the most commonly used is induction motor. We also horoskop steinbock frau single 2015 call this motor is renee zellweger still dating bradley cooper as because it runs at speed less than triumph bonneville single seat rack its synchronous speed.

Synchronous Speed

Here we need to single mit kind reisen berlin define what is synchronous speed. Synchronous speed is the speed of rotation of the magnetic field in a rotary machine, and it depends upon the frequency and number poles of the machine.

An induction motor always runs at speed less than synchronous speed. Because the rotating magnetic field produced in the stator will create flux in the rotor and hence will make the rotor to rotate. Due to the lagging of flux current in the rotor with flux current in the stator, the rotor will never reach it's rotating magnetic field speed, i.e. the synchronous speed. Induction Motor There are basically two types of induction motors. The types of induction motors depend upon the input supply. The and. Single phase induction motor is not a self-starting motor, and three phase induction motor is a self-starting motor.

Working Principle of Induction Motor is renee zellweger still dating bradley cooper

We need to give double excitation to make a to rotate. In a, we give one supply to the stator and another to the rotor through brush arrangement. But in induction motor, we give only one supply, so it is really interesting to know how an induction motor works. It is very simple, from the name itself we can understand that here, induction process is involved. When we give the supply to the stator winding, a magnetic flux is produced in the stator due to the flow of current in the coil. The rotor winding is arranged in such a way that each coil becomes short-circuited in the rotor itself.

The flux from the stator cuts the short-circuited coil in the rotor. As the rotor coils are short-circuited, according to, current will start flowing through the coil of the rotor. When the current through the rotor coils flows, another flux gets generated in the rotor. Now there are two fluxes, one is stator flux, and another is rotor flux. The rotor flux will be lagging with respect to the stator flux. Because of that, the rotor will feel a torque which will make the rotor to rotate in the direction of rotating magnetic field. This is the working principle of an induction motor of either type – single and three phase.

Single Phase Induction Motor

  1. Split Phase Induction Motor
  2. Capacitor Start Induction Motor
  3. Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Induction Motor
  4. Shaded Pole Induction Motor

Three Phase Induction Motor

  1. Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
  2. Slip Ring Induction Motor
We have already mentioned above that single phase induction motor is not a self-starting and three phase induction motor is self-starting. So what is self-starting? When the machine starts running automatically without any external force to the machine, then it is called as self-starting. For example, we see that when we put on the switch the fan starts to rotate automatically, so it is self-starting. Point to be noted that fan used in home appliances is single phase induction motor which is inherently not self-starting. How? A question arises how it works? We will discuss it now.

Why is Three Phase Induction Motor Self Starting?

In, there are three single phase lines with 120° phase difference. So the rotating magnetic field has the same phase difference which will make the rotor to move. If we consider three phases a, b, and c when phase a is magnetised, the rotor will move towards the phase a winding a, in the next moment phase b will get magnetised and it will attract the rotor and then phase c. So the rotor will continue to rotate.

Working Principle of Three Phase Induction Motor - Video

Why Single Phase Induction Motor is not Self Starting?

It has only one phase still it makes the rotor to rotate, so it is quite interesting. Before that, we need to know why single phase induction motor is not a self-starting motor and how we overcome the problem. We know that the AC supply is a sinusoidal wave and it produces a pulsating magnetic field in the uniformly distributed stator winding. Since we can assume the pulsating magnetic field as two oppositely rotating magnetic fields, there will be no resultant torque produced at the starting, and hence the motor does not run. After giving the supply, if the rotor is made to rotate in either direction by an external force, then the motor will start to run. We can solve this problem by making the stator winding into two winding, one is main winding, and another is auxiliary winding. We connect one capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding. The capacitor will make a phase difference when current flows through both coils. When there is phase difference, the rotor will generate a starting torque, and it will start to rotate. Practically we can see that the fan does not rotate when the capacitor gets disconnected from the motor, but if we rotate with the hand, it will start rotating. That is why we use a capacitor in the single phase induction motor.
There are several advantages of induction motor which make this motor to have wider application. It has good efficiency up to 97%. But the speed of the motor varies with the load given to the motor which is a disadvantage of this motor. The direction of rotation of induction motor can easily be changed by changing the phase sequence of three-phase supply, i.e. if RYB is in a forward direction, the RBY will make the motor to rotate in reverse direction. This is in the case of three phase motor, but in single phase motor, the direction can be reversed by reversing the capacitor terminals in the winding.

Where three-phase power horoskop steinbock frau single 2015 is unavailable or impractical, it’s single-phase motors to the rescue. Though they lack the higher efficiencies of their three-phase siblings, single-phase motors — correctly sized and rated — can last a lifetime with little maintenance.

Occasionally a manufacturing defect can result in early motor failure. However, most failures come from inappropriate application. Pay careful attention to application requirements before choosing städtereise berlin single mit kind a motor for replacement of a failed one or for a new design application. Not choosing the correct motor type and horsepower can cause repeated motor failure and equipment downtime. Obviously, you don’t want to specify a motor too small for the application, thus resulting in electrical stresses that cause premature motor failure. But neither should you specify a motor too powerful — either because of its power or its inherent design characteristics. It can also have serious effects. For example, a motor with high locked-rotor and breakdown bad manners dates 2015 torques can damage the equipment it drives. Also, running a motor at less than full rated load is inefficient, costing you money for power wasted.

The key: First, size the motor to the application but, just as importantly, understand the characteristics of the major types of single-phase motors — characteristics that go right to the heart of matching a motor to an application.

In general, an ac polyphase squirrelcage motor connected to a polyphase line will develop starting torque. A squirrelcage motor connected to a single-phase line develops no starting torque, but having been started by some external means, it runs approximately like a polyphase motor. The many types of single-phase motors are distinguished mostly by the means by which they are started.


The split-phase motor, also called an induction-start/induction-run motor, is probably the simplest single-phase motor made for industrial use, though somewhat limited. It has two windings: a start and a main winding, . The start winding is made with smaller gage wire and fewer turns relative to the main winding to create more resistance, thus putting the start winding’s field at a different electrical angle than that of the main winding, and causing the motor to rotate. The main winding, of heavier wire, keeps the motor running the rest of the time.

A split-phase motor uses a switching mechanism that disconnects the start winding from the main winding when the motor comes up to about 75% of rated speed. In most cases, it is a centrifugal switch on the motor shaft.

The split-phase motor’s simple design makes it typically less expensive than other single-phase motor types for industrial use. However, it also limits performance. Starting torque is low, typically 100 to 175% of rated load. Also, the motor develops high starting current, approximately 700 to 1,000% of rated. Consequently, prolonged starting times cause the start winding to overheat and fail; so don’t use this motor if you need high starting torque.

Other split-phase motor characteristics: Maximum running torque ranges from 250 to 350% of normal. Plus, thermal protection is difficult because the high locked-rotor current relative to running current makes it tricky to find a protector with trip time fast enough to prevent start-winding burnout. And, these motors usually are designed for single voltage, limiting application flexibility.

Good applications applications of different types of single phase induction motors for split-phase motors include small grinders, small fans and blowers, and other low startingtorque applications with power needs from 1/20 to 1/3 hp. Avoid applications requiring high cycle rates or high torque.


Here is a true wide-application, industrial-duty motor. Think of it as a splitphase motor, but with a beefed-up start winding that includes a capacitor in the circuit to provide a start “boost,”. Like the split-phase motor, the capacitor- start motor also has a starting mechanism, either a mechanical or solid-state electronic switch. This disconnects not only the start winding, but also the capacitor when the motor reaches about 75% of rated speed.

Capacitor-start/induction-run motors have several advantages over split-phase motors. The capacitor is in series with the start circuit, so it creates more starting torque, typically 200 to 400% of rated load. And starting current, usually 450 to 575% of rated current, is much lower than that of the split-phase due to the larger wire in the start circuit. This allows higher cycle rates and reliable thermal protection.

The cap-start/induction-run motor is more expensive than a comparable splitphase motor because of the additional cost of the start capacitor. But the application range is much wider because of higher starting torque and lower starting current. Use the motors on a wide range of belt-drive applications like small conveyors, large blowers and pumps, and many direct-drive or geared applications. These are the workhorses of general-purpose industrial motors.

Permanent split capacitor

A permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, , has neither a starting switch nor a capacitor strictly for starting. Instead, it has a run-type capacitor permanently connected in series with the start winding. This makes the start winding an auxiliary winding once the motor reaches running speed. Because the run capacitor must be designed for continuous use, it cannot provide the starting boost of a starting capacitor. Typical starting torques of PSC motors are low, from 30 to 150% of rated load, so these motors are not for hard-to-start applications. However, unlike split-phase motors, PSC motors have low starting current, usually less than 200% of rated load current, making them excellent for applications with high cycle rates. Breakdown torque varies depending on design type and application, though it is typically somewhat lower than with a capstart motor.

PSC motors have several advantages. They need no starting mechanism and so can be reversed easily. Designs can be easily altered for use with speed controllers. They can also be designed for optimum efficiency and high power factor at rated load. And they’re considered the most reliable of single-phase motors, mostly because no starting switch is needed.

Permanent split capacitor motors have a wide variety of applications depending on the design. These include fans, blowers with low starting-torque needs, and intermittent cycling uses such as adjusting mechanisms, gate operators, and garage-door openers, many of which also need instant reversing.

Capacitor-start/capacitor run This type, , combines the best of the capacitor-start/induction-run motor and the permanent split capacitor motor. It has a start-type capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding like the capacitor-start motor for high starting torque. And, like a PSC motor, it also has a run-type capacitor that is in series with the auxiliary winding after the start capacitor is switched out of the circuit. This allows high breakdown or overload torque.

Another advantage of the capacitorstart/ capacitor-run type motor: It can be designed for lower full-load current and higher efficiency. Among other things, this means it operates at lower temperature than other single-phase motor types of comparable horsepower.

The only disadvantage to a capstart/ cap-run motor is its higher price — mostly the result of more capacitors, plus a starting switch. But it’s a powerhouse, able to handle applications too demanding for any other kind of single-phase motor. These include woodworking machinery, air compressors, high-pressure water pumps, vacuum pumps, and other hightorque applications requiring 1 to 10 hp.


Unlike all the previous types of singlephase motors discussed, shaded-pole motors have only one main winding and no start winding,. Starting is by means of a design that rings a continuous copper loop around a small portion of each motor pole. This “shades” that portion of the pole, causing the magnetic field in the ringed area to lag the field in the unringed portion. The reaction of the two fields gets the shaft rotating.

Because the shaded-pole motor lacks a start winding, starting switch, or capacitor, it is electrically simple and inexpensive. Plus, speed can be controlled merely by varying voltage, or through a multitap winding. Mechanically, shaded-pole motor construction allows high-volume production. In fact, these are usually considered “disposable” motors — they are much cheaper to replace than to repair.

The shaded-pole motor has many positive features, but it also has several disadvantages. Its low starting torque is typically 25 to 75% of full-load torque. It is a high slip motor with running speed 7 to 10% below synchronous speed, Also, it is very inefficient, usually below 20%.

Low initial cost suits shaded-pole motors to low-horsepower or light-duty applications. Perhaps their largest use is in multispeed fans for household use. But low torque, low efficiency, and less sturdy mechanical features make shaded-pole motors impractical for most industrial or commercial uses where higher cycle rates or continuous duty are the norm.

The preceding information establishes guidelines to determine the proper motor type for your application. However, there are special cases and applications in which it is acceptable to vary from these guidelines. Make it a point to check with your motor manufacturer for technical support in these areas.


Start capacitor. The electrolytic start capacitor helps the motor achieve the most beneficial phase angles between start and main windings for the most locked-rotor torque per locked-rotor ampere. It is disconnected from the start circuit when the motor reaches about 75% of full-load speed.

The start capacitor is designed for short-time duty. Extended application of voltage to the capacitor will cause premature failure, if not immediate destruction.

Typical ratings for motor start capacitors range from 100 to 1,000-microfarad (μF) capacitance and 115 to 125 Vac. However, special applications require 165 to 250-Vac capacitors, which are physically larger than capacitors of lower voltage rating for the same capacitance. Capacitance is a measure of how much charge a capacitor can store relative to the voltage applied.

Run capacitor. These are constructed similarly to start capacitors, except for the electrolyte. They are designed to serve continuously in the run circuit of a capacitor- start/capacitor-run motor. They withstand higher voltages, in the range of 250 to 370 Vac. They also have lower capacitance, usually less than 65 μF.

Kevin Heinecke is an electrical design engineer in the AC Motor Group,, Grafton, Wis. He has been with Leeson 8 years and holds an electrical engineering degree from, along with an associate degree in electromechanical technology from.

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Overview of A.C.Motors

robot 1. Synchronous Motors & it's Uses: These motors have the rotor(which is connected to the load) rotating at the same speed as the speed of rotation of the stator current. In other words, we can say these motors don't have slip with respect to the stator current. They are sometimes used no to drive the load but instead act as "synchronous condenser", to improve the power factor of the local grid to which it is connected to. These kind of motors are used even in high precision positioning devices like modern robots.They can also act as stepper motors.

2. Asynchronous Motors & it's Uses: The most common form of motor which is used in everyday life from pumping water up the overhead tank to power plant boiler feed pumps, these kind of motors rule. These motors are very flexible to use and matches the load demand almost for everything. The most widely used electric car motor Induction Motors are very important for many industries due to their load bearing capacity and flexibility. These motors,unlike synchronous motors, slip when compared to the stator current field. They are generally used for various, compressors and acts as prime movers for many machineries.

3. Single & Three Phase Motors and their Uses: The A.C.Motors can find their usage in 2 forms based on their power supply. The single phase motors are generally found their use in low power requirements/domestic appliances like ceiling fans, mixer grinders, portable power tools etc. The three phase motors are generally found for high power requirements like power drives for, hydraulic pumps, air conditioning compressors, irrigation pumps and many more.

Boat-motors 4. Constant, Variable & Adjustable Speed Motors: As already said, A.C.Motors are highly flexible in many ways including their speed control. There are motors which should be run at a constant speed for air compressors. Certain cooling water pumps driven by a.c.motors can be run at two or three speeds by just switching the number of poles used. If the number of poles are changed then the speed also changes. These serve best for in applications & many. The speed of the motors can also be varied continuously by some electronic arrangements thus this can be suited for certain applications like a ship's cargo pump, whose discharge rate has to lowered as per the terminals requirement.

5. Varied Structure Motors: These types of motors have different outer cage arrangements, depending upon the usage or any special industrial requirement. For motors used in gas and oil terminals, the casing must be of intrinsically safe, thus it may either have a enclosed casing or a pipe ventilated arrangement such that the sparks produced inside the motor does not cause a fire outside it. Also many motors are totally enclosed as it may be open to weather like those used in hydro-electric power plants.

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Zahra Doejune 2, 2017
Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.
Zahra Doejune 2, 2017
Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.
Zahra Doejune 2, 2017
Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.

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